A majority of diabetic people have a healthy range of 90 -130 mg/dl for their glucose levels, and less than 180 mg/dl 2 hours after a meal. Blood glucose levels that stay above 180 mg/dl will indicate a high blood sugar condition called hyperglycaemia where your body doesn't get enough insulin.
If your food consumption is not balanced with exercise or diabetes medication, hyperglycaemia is likely to happen, which will require immediate treatment or it can lead to life-threatening complications. There are several reasons for this to occur such as illness, stress, overeating, lack of exercise, or insufficient diabetes medications.
Untreated hyperglycaemia will cause your body to start breaking down body fats for your fuel needs because of the lack of insulin, which is needed to process the blood glucose for body energy. This will produce ketones as a waste product and although some ketones will pass out in your urine, the rest will build up in your blood, and exercising in this condition will increase the build up. These ketones will trigger a diabetic coma or ketoacidosis, in the severest cases, but if you work with both your medical provider to lower your blood glucose levels, through medication or diet, ketoacidosis can be avoided.
When blood sugar levels fall too low, a condition called hypoglycaemia occurs, which can be sudden and without any explanation. It can occur when too little food is eaten, or too much insulin or diabetes medication is consumed, or more than normal exercise is done. When the blood glucose level falls below 70 mg/dl, one needs a quick-fix for sugar intake to boost the glucose levels.
This can be from moderate amounts of 3 or 4 glucose tablets, or 1 serving of glucose gel, 4 oz. of any fruit juice, 8 oz. of milk, 4 oz. of a regular soft drink, 5 or 6 pieces of hard candy, or 1 tbsp. of sugar or honey. Check your glucose level again after 15 minutes to see if it has come back to normal. If not, then repeat the necessary steps until there is progress back to normal. When your levels are stable and normal, and it will be at least one hour before a meal, you should eat a snack to help keep your glucose level more stable.