Hair loss is common in men. Male-pattern baldness (medically called alopecia androgenetica) is the most prevalent cause and affects around half of all men by the time they reach 50.
Although common, it can still take time to come to terms with thinning hair and many men take a while to adjust to their new appearance. Hereditary male-pattern baldness is only one type of hair loss and how you treat your condition will depend on the type and cause.
What are the Symptoms of Hair Loss in Men?
- Thinning on top of the head
- Receding hairline
- Patches of baldness
- Thinning on crown & temples
What Causes Hair Loss in Men?
- Alopecia androgenetica - male-pattern baldness normally follows a pattern of a receding hairline, followed by thinning on the crown and temples.
- Male-pattern baldness is hereditary and occurs when the hair follicles react to an excess of a hormone called dihydrotestosterone (DHT), made from the male hormone testosterone. DHT acts on the hair follicle slowing down hair production until it becomes thinner and weaker and eventually stops altogether. This tends to occur with age.
- Alopecia areata - is hair loss in patches. It is an autoimmune condition. Normally the immune system attacks the cause of infection but with alopecia areata, it attacks the hair follicles instead. The condition is more common in people with certain medical conditions such as thyroid disease or diabetes. Usually, the hair follicles are not permanently damaged and the hair grows back within a few months.
- Scarring alopecia - is hair loss that occurs usually as a result of another condition. The hair follicle gets completely destroyed which means the hair does not grow back.
- Anagen effluvium - is hair loss over the whole body and usually results from chemotherapy treatment for cancer. The hair usually grows back after chemo has stopped.
- Telogen effluvium - is temporary widespread thinning of the hair usually as a reaction to medication or stress.
How is hair loss treated?
Baldness as a hereditary condition cannot be prevented but there are two drugs to slow it down.
Finasteride for men works by stopping testosterone converting into DHT - the hormone that slow hair production. The product is available in tablet form and only on private prescription (not on the NHS).
Minoxidil is a lotion rubbed onto the scalp daily and is available over-the-counter. Its exact mechanism is not fully understood but it’s thought to increase blood supply to the hair follicles so they can produce hairs more efficiently.
There are a number of surgical techniques to replace hair including hair transplant - harvesting existing hair and grafting it onto bald areas, artificial hair transplants - implanting synthetic fibres into the scalp and scalp reduction - moving hairy parts of the scalp closer together.
- Good hairstyling, hairpieces and wigs can be used to disguise thinning or balding hair, or hair can be woven into existing hair.
- Loss of eyebrows or very short hair can be replicated with a tattoo. This is known as dermatography.
- Aromatherapy, acupuncture and massage are sometimes used for alopecia but there is scant evidence on effectiveness.