What is Diabetes - Types of Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is caused by the destruction of the body's insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. Although this type of diabetes is more prevalent among children and young adults, it can strike at any age and may account for about 5-10 percent of all diabetes cases. If you have Type 1 diabetes, your body makes no insulin, so you must take daily insulin injections to metabolize the glucose you digest.

Symptoms usually appear suddenly:
  • Frequent urination
  • Extreme hunger and thirst
  • Weight loss
  • Weakness and tiredness
Type 2 diabetes
If you were diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes, you're not alone. Yours is the most common type of diabetes and it may account for about 90-95 percent of the diabetes population. Type 2 diabetes has several causes, including heredity, age, and weight. Like most people with Type 2 diabetes, your body probably makes enough insulin, but you're just not able to use it properly. You'll find that losing weight and exercising frequently can help you manage this kind of diabetes.
Type 2 usually develops slowly, with symptoms and complications developing over time. Often no symptoms are present when Type 2 is diagnosed. Once thought of as an adult disease, Type 2 diabetes is being increasingly diagnosed in younger people.
  • Feeling tired
  • Blurred vision
  • Dry, itchy skin
  • Increased hunger and thirst
  • Increased urination
  • Tingling or loss of feeling in hands or feet
  • Non-healing infections of skin, vagina and/or bladder
  • Vaginal yeast infections
Impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose
According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) are considered to be prediabetic conditions, although these conditions may be reversible. The American Diabetes Association has published the following standards to define these conditions:
IGT is a condition in which the blood sugar level is elevated (between 140 and 199 mg/dL in a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test), but not high enough to be>
IFG is a condition in which the fasting blood sugar level is elevated (between 100 and 125 mg/dL after an overnight fast) but is not high enough to be>
As the result of a study conducted from 1988 to 1994, the CDC estimated that 20.1 million adults aged 40 to 74 had IGT, IFG, or both. Of these adults, 9.6 million had IFG and 14.2 million had IGT.
Gestational diabetes
A woman's body changes a lot during pregnancy. Pregnant women can develop gestational diabetes. All women should be checked for diabetes in the sixth month of pregnancy (weeks 24-28). Approximately 7 percent of all women who become pregnant develop gestational diabetes.
If gestational diabetes is diagnosed, your doctor will help you manage the disease before and after the baby is born. If you've been diagnosed, you can have some comfort in the fact that it can be managed with diet, exercise, and possibly insulin.
Gestational diabetes is more likely to occur in women who are overweight and/or older. Gestational diabetes is much more common in African American, Hispanic and American Indian women. Be aware that about 35 percent of women who develop gestational diabetes will later develop Type 2 diabetes. Maintaining a healthy body weight decreases the risk.
Pregnancy with diabetes
If you have diabetes, it is very important that you manage your diabetes carefully during pregnancy. Any pregnancies should be planned. You need to maintain excellent diabetes control (normal blood glucose) for at least 3 months prior to conception and throughout pregnancy. You and your baby will need a great deal of special care. Ask your doctor about diabetes educators who specialize in diabetes management during pregnancy.